Author: Mayuj Morales Colca. Student MICCP (UPM)
After the National Census carried out in 2017 by the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics (INEI), it was announced that in rural areas of Peru there is a housing deficit of 291,545 inhabitants, which in figures would be a decrease of 13% of rural population, due to emigration to large urban centers due to the scarcity of job opportunities and the low quality of living conditions, due to the precariousness of households in a condition of poverty and vulnerability to climate change. For this reason, common indicators were established to identify the needs that arise, according to the condition of each dwelling, determining that, in 82.3% of rural dwellings, a dirt floor predominates and in terms of sanitation in the dwellings, 38% of rural families are supplied with water from the river, ditches or springs and 30% use it as drainage; latrines, septic tanks or cesspools. In this way, the State Administration through the Ministry of Housing, Construction and Sanitation (MVCS), started the National Rural Housing Program (PNVR), with the purpose of improving the quality of life of the population living in poverty and extreme poverty. that is located in rural or dispersed rural areas, through the construction of houses with thermal comfort and earthquake resistant considerations to obtain safe and suitable homes, through:
- Multi-sectorial plan for frost and low temperatures.
- Provision of rural housing for the population living in poverty and extreme poverty, through the management and use of sustainable infrastructures.
Depending on the region where it is implemented, the houses vary according to the climatic and geographical conditions that occur in rural areas of the coast, mountains and jungle, of which 18 high Andean and jungle regions of the country were prioritized, including Cusco, Arequipa, Huancavelica, Puno and Tacna to build the bioclimatic houses Sumaq Wasi (which in Quechua means nice house).
The articulation of the PNVR is made up of the Local Governments and the Executing Nucleus (beneficiaries), which is made up of the families benefited by the program, and these are organized and constituted through General Assemblies, according to Law 30533 (Law that authorizes the MVCS to carry out interventions through the Executing Nuclei) have legal capacity to contract and intervene in administrative and judicial procedures. In this way, the participation of the population in the housing construction process was encouraged as a temporary collective entity.
In addition, when carrying out the aid program, goals were drawn up that entail short, medium and long-term objectives, in order to allow the inhabitants a social, economic and environmental development, through the PNVR that allows to stop the depopulation of the areas. rural areas and promote agriculture and livestock activities. The outlined objectives are detailed below:
- Short Term: Immediate relief
Actions on basic living conditions, providing comfortable conditioning and seismic safety.
- Medium Term: Capacity development
Development of individual and community capacities to manage and implement MVCS initiatives, increasing technical-constructive capacities in the population and improving local capacities.
- Long Term: Greater opportunities for future generations
Improvement of the health and well-being conditions of people and communities, increasing sustainability.
Currently, the Ministry of Housing, Construction and Sanitation has built 10,868 Sumaq Wasi bioclimatic homes, for the benefit of the most affected families that seek to improve the quality of housing life, through sustainable thermal systems in homes, protecting them from the severe effects of low temperatures and high rainfall that occur in the high Andean areas of the country.
The Sumaq Wasi system allows to capture the heat of the sun during the day and conserve it at night, increasing the temperature inside from 14 to 18 degrees Celsius through the Solar Collector – Accumulator – Transfer (CAT) technology, which allows the accumulation of energy thermal and distribute the heat in the house. The bioclimatic design consists of insulating the house from high or low temperatures, using materials with high thermal insulation, typical of the place and with low environmental impact, capturing solar rays through roof windows, wooden floors, 02-water sloped roofs, use of eaves and among others.
In this way, from a technical point of view, I consider that bioclimatic homes are a good solution to the adversities that occur in the different rural areas of the country to promote social and economic development, in addition to favoring and encouraging energy management, sustainable.